Tuesday, 7 March 2017

Developmental Milestones of a child


Children require keen observation while growing up. Signs of developmental issues/ delays may not be visible at birth but might show up in the early ages of your child’s growth. Recognizing the delays at earliest will help your child to get proper medical intervention, help and care which will help your child lead a better and more fulfilling life later. Delay in the treatment may limit your child’s recovery. It holds true in the case of Cerebral Palsy also.  
Signs and symptoms of cerebral palsy include impairment of muscle tone, gross and fine motor functions, balance, control, coordination, reflexes and posture.  oral motor dysfunction like swallowing & other feeding difficulties, speech impairment and poor facial muscle tone are also few of them. Other conditions that often occur in children with Cerebral Palsy are sensory impairment, seizures, and learning disabilities.
How the child crawls, sits, speaks, learns, interacts, moves and plays are key insights on how they are doing in their development. Parents may notice that their child is not developing at the same rate that other children of the same /similar age are. Is your child reaching the milestones on time? is the most important question that needs to be addressed by the parents. Developmental delay occurs when a child has not reached or developed a certain ability at the correct time on the normal developmental time scale.
Talk to paediatrician about developmental milestones if you observe any and the correct timeline for each one to occur. Every child is different and nobody is perfect, but the below list of developmental milestones will help you to consider if your child is on the right track or if something is wrong.
The First Month:

·         Can lift head briefly
·         Turns head from side to side when lying on back
·         Hands stay clenched
·         Strong grasp reflex present
·         Looks and follows object moving in front of them in range of 45 degrees
·         Sees black and white patterns
·         Quiets when a voice is heard
·         Cries to express displeasure
·         Makes throaty sounds
·         Looks intently at parents when they talk to him/her
The Second Month:

·         Lifts head almost 45 degrees when lying on stomach
·         Head bobs forward when held in sitting position
·         Grasp reflex decreases
·         Follows dangling objects with eyes
·         Visually searches for sounds
·         Makes noises other than crying
·         Cries become distinctive (wet, hungry, etc.)
·         Vocalizes to familiar voices
·         Social smile demonstrated in response to various stimuli
The Third Month:

·         Begins to bear partial weight on both legs when held in a standing position
·         Able to hold head up when sitting but still bobs forward
·         When lying on stomach can raise head and shoulders between 45 and 90 degrees
·         Bears weight on forearms
·         Grasp reflex absent
·         Holds objects but does not reach for them
·         Clutches own hands and pulls at blankets and clothes
·         Follows objects 180 degrees
·         Locates sound by turning head and looking in the same direction
·         Squeals, coos, babbles, and chuckles
·         “Talks” when spoken to
·         Recognizes faces, voices, and objects
·         Smiles when he/she sees familiar people, and engages in play with them
·         Shows awareness to strange situations
The Fourth Month:

·         Drooling begins
·         Good head control
·         Sits with support
·         Bears some weight on legs when held upright
·         Raises head and chest off surface to a 90-degree angle
·         Rolls from back to side
·         Explores and plays with hands
·         Tries to reach for objects but overshoots
·         Grasps objects with both hands
·         Eye-hand coordination begins
·         Makes consonant sounds
·         Laughs
·         Enjoys being rocked, bounced or swung
The Fifth Month:

·         Signs of teething begin
·         Holds head up when sitting
·         Rolls from stomach to back
·         When lying on back puts feet to mouth
·         Voluntarily grasps and holds objects
·         Plays with toes
·         Takes objects directly to mouth
·         Watches objects that are dropped
·         Says “ah-goo” or similar vowel-consonant combinations
·         Smiles at mirror image
·         Gets upset if you take a toy away
·         Can tell family and strangers apart
·         Begins to discover parts of his/her body
The Sixth Month:

·         Chewing and biting occur
·         When on stomach, can lift chest and part of stomach off the surface, bearing weight on hands
·         Lifts head when pulled to a sitting position
·         Rolls from back to stomach
·         Bears majority of weight when being held in a standing position
·         Grasps and controls small objects
·         Holds bottle
·         Grabs feet and pulls to mouth
·         Adjusts body to see an object
·         Turns head from side to side and then looks up or down
·         Prefers more complex visual stimuli
·         Says one syllable sounds like “ma”, “mu”, “da”, and “di”
·         Recognizes parents
The Seventh Month:

·         Sits without support, may lean forward on both hands
·         Bears full weight on feet
·         Bounces when held in standing position
·         Bears weight on one hand when lying on stomach
·         Transfers objects from one hand to another
·         Bangs objects on surfaces
·         Able to fixate on small objects
·         Responds to name
·         Awareness of depth and space begin
·         Has taste preferences
·         “Talks” when others are talking
The Eight Month:

·         Sits well without support
·         Bears weight on legs and may stand holding on to furniture
·         Adjusts posture to reach an object
·         Picks up objects using index, fourth, and fifth finger against thumb
·         Able to release objects
·         Pulls string to obtain object
·         Reaches for toys that are out of reach
·         Listens selectively to familiar words
·         Begins combining syllables like “mama” and “dada” but does not attach a meaning
·         Understands the word no (but does not always obey it)!
·         Dislikes having diaper changed and being dressed
The Ninth Month:

·         Begins crawling
·         Pulls up to standing position from sitting
·         Sits for a prolonged time (10minutes)
·         May develop a preference for use of one hand
·         Uses thumb and index finger to pick up objects
·         Responds to simple verbal commands
·         Comprehends the word “no”
·         Increased interest in pleasing parents
·         Puts arms in front of face to avoid having it washed
The Tenth Month:

·         Goes from stomach to sitting position
·         Sits by falling down
·         Recovers balance easily while sitting
·         Lifts one foot to take a step while standing
·         Comprehends “bye-bye”
·         Says “dada” or “mama” with meaning
·         Says one other word beside “mama” and “dada” (hi, bye, no, go)
·         Waves bye
·         Object permanence begins to develop
·         Repeats actions that attract attention
·         Plays interactive games such a “pat-a-cake”
·         Enjoys being read to and follows pictures in books
The Eleventh Month:
·         Walks holding on to furniture or other objects
·         Places one object after another into a container
·         Reaches back to pick up an object when sitting
·         Explores objects more thoroughly
·         Able to manipulate objects out of tight fitting spaces
·         Rolls a ball when asked
·         Becomes excited when a task is mastered
·         Acts frustrated when restricted
·         Shakes head for “no”

The Twelfth Month:

·         Walks with one hand held
·         May stand alone and attempt first steps alone
·         Sits down from standing position without help
·         Attempts to build two block tower but may fail
·         Turns pages in a book
·         Follows rapidly moving objects
·         Says three or more words other than “mama” or “dada”
·         Comprehends the meaning of several words
·         Repeats the same words over & over again
·         Imitates sounds, such as the sounds dogs and cats make
·         Recognizes objects by name
·         Understands simple verbal commands
·         Shows affection
·         Shows independence in familiar surrounding
·         Clings to parents in strange situation
·         Searches for object where it was last seen

Reference for the developmental milestones: americanpregnancy.org/first-year-of-life/first-year-development/





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