Few most common vestibular dysfunctions are:
1. Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo (BPPV)
BPPV is the most common cause of vertigo. A short-lived, strong episode of vertigo activated by a specific change in the position of the head. There are both severe and mild forms of BPPV, which lead to different clinical symptoms.
2. Vestibular Neuronitis/Neuritis
Vestibular Neuronitis is characterised by severe and sudden onset vertigo, which is caused by inflammation of the vestibular nerve and often accompanied with nausea and vomiting.
3. Unexplained dizziness
Sometimes it very difficult, particularly in the acute phase to determine the cause of dizziness. it is important see neurotherapeutic doctor to ensure and eliminate any serious problem if any .
Many factors contribute to falls in the elderly and in those with neurological disorders such as stroke, Parkinson’s and Multiple Sclerosis. It is essential to have an assessment that screens the physiological systems that contribute to falls risk.
Poor co-ordination, tremor and reduced postural stability and balance create difficulties with many activities of daily living. There are many conditions that cause ataxia including stroke, multiple sclerosis and brain injury.
Migraine is a common disorder of central sensory processing. It leads to episodic symptoms, the most common of which is headache. However, migraine does not always cause headache, with some rare forms of migraine leading to dizziness. Other symptoms such as nausea, vomiting and light and noise sensitivity are common.
7. Meniere’s Disease
Meniere’s disease is a rare, chronic ailment that lead to episodic attacks of dizziness, nausea and vomiting, often with slow deterioration in the ability to balance and one-side hearing loss.
8. Endolyphatic Hydrops
Endolymphatic hydrops result in episodes of dizziness, imbalance and hearing changes.
Labyrinthitis is an infection within the inner ear, which causes vertigo and imbalance sensations.
10. High Level gait disorders
Many people develop problems with walking, such as intermittent difficulty in walking, reduced confidence, and slow or shuffling steps.
11. Cervical Vertigo
In some cases, problems with the neck leads to feelings of dizziness and disequilibrium.
12. Perilymph fistula :
It is leakage of inner ear fluid into the middle ear. Perilymph fistula can occur after a head injury, dramatic changes in air pressure, physical exertion, ear surgery, or chronic ear infections.
13. Mal de Debarquement syndrome:
A feeling of continuously rocking or bobbing, typically after an ocean cruise or other sea travel. Usually the symptoms go away a few hours or days after you reach land. Severe cases, however, can last months or even years, and the cause remains unknown.
14. Acoustic Neuroma :
An acoustic neuroma is a benign (non-malignant), usually slow-growing tumour that develops from the nerves of inner ear.
15. Bilateral Vestibular Hypofunction:
Reduction or loss of vestibular function bilaterally results in difficulty maintaining balance, especially when walking in the dark or on uneven surfaces, and a decrease in the patient’s ability to see clearly during head movements.
16. CANVAS Syndrome :
Patients with CANVAS combine cerebellar ataxia (i.e. coordination problems -- the CA), peripheral nerve damage (neuropathy - N), and loss of vestibular function (vestibular areflexia -- the VA). This combination causes major disturbances to balance as each of these systems alone contributes to balance.
17. Concussion :
Concussion can occur under the following conditions:
The head strikes a stationary object. Common examples include a fall where the head hits the ground or an object, or hitting the head on an object during an auto accident.
An object hits the head, such as a ball or stick during sports, or because of human collision.
A quick acceleration/deceleration of the head with no contact to any surface. This can occur in dancers and gymnasts due to rapid movement, or during an auto accident where there appears to be no head trauma.
Trauma to the brain can result in abnormal vestibular system functioning, and the brain can receive abnormal signals regarding the position and movement of the head in space.